Interest in chemical EOR processes has intensified in recent years due to the advancements in chemical formulations and injection techniques. Injecting Polymer (P), surfactant/polymer (SP),and alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) are techniques for improving sweep and displacement efficiencies with the aim of improving oil production in both secondary and tertiary floods.
There has been great interest in chemical flooding recently for different challenging situations. These include high temperature reservoirs, formations with extreme salinity and hardness, naturally fractured carbonates, and sandstone reservoirs with heavy and viscous crude oils. More oil reservoirs are reaching maturity where secondary polymer floods and tertiary surfactant methods have become increasingly important. This... significance has added to the industry's interest in using reservoir simulators as tools for reservoir evaluation and management to minimize costs and increase the process efficiency.
Reservoir simulators with special features are needed to represent coupled chemical and physical processes present in chemical EOR processes. The simulators need to be first validated against well controlled lab and pilot scale experiments to reliably predict the full field implementations. The available data from laboratory scale include:
1) phase behavior and rheological data; and
2) results of secondary and tertiary coreflood experiments for P, SP, and ASP floods under reservoir conditions, i.e. chemical retentions, pressure drop, and oil recovery. Data collected from corefloods are used as benchmark tests comparing numerical reservoir simulators with chemical EOR modeling capabilities such as STARS of CMG, ECLIPSE-100 of Schlumberger, REVEAL of Petroleum Experts.
The research UTCHEM simulator from The University of Texas at Austin is also included since it has been the benchmark for chemical flooding simulation for over 25 years. The results of this benchmark comparison will be utilized to improve chemical design for field-scale studies using commercial simulators. The benchmark tests illustrate the potential of commercial simulators for chemical flooding projects and provide a comprehensive table of strengths and limitations of each simulator for a given chemical EOR process. Mechanistic simulations of chemical EOR processes will provide predictive capability and can aid in optimization of the field injection projects. The objective of this paper is not to compare the computational efficiency and solution algorithms; it only focuses on the process modeling comparison.
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In the last decades, a significant boost in embedded computing systems performance has been observed in several different domains, mostly due to technology scaling and to the ever increasing exploitatDetail＞ >
Interest in chemical EOR processes has intensified in recent years due to the advancements in chemical formulations and injection techniques.Detail＞ >